Posts Tagged Study skills

Exam warfare

 

P-00 (((Peonidas Preparing For War)))

Image by pikahsso via Flickr

 

When you sit an exam, you’re going to war: it’s a war to win marks and glory – well, you want the marks anyway. So get a determined attitude, then become a canny general and marshal your resources to win the war. Here’s a piece of advice from Sun Tzu, the famous ancient military strategist and author of “The Art of War”:

“The general who wins the battle makes many calculations in his temple before the battle is fought. The general who loses makes but few calculations beforehand.”

What does it mean? If you want to win – prepare! You’ve probably been told this before (many times). “Use your time before the exam well; because you won’t get it back again”. “Time will be one thing you’ll wish you have more of in the exam” etc. It’s all true, but what can you do to prepare effectively – and how can you maximise the return on your time?

Preparing for war

Build up an inventory of resources in your mind so that you have a range of content to draw upon during the exam. Importantly, this will also decrease your nerves on the day and increase your confidence.

There are two categories of resources that you can store up in your mind:

  1. Firstly, know what literary techniques you can write about; be able to discuss key sections of the text, know some good examples of important devices that develop the text. For essays in subjects other than English Literature, know some good examples of studies, facts etc. that prove important points.
  2. Secondly, understand the themes of set texts – have a firm grasp of these themes; you need to be able to write fluently about them. Know multiple themes, or interpretations, if possible. Be well-equipped to respond to a range of essay questions. For other subjects, this translates to understanding theories, models, philosophies and schools of thought.

Note: you don’t need to memorise these inputs for your essay word-for-word, you just need to be able to call them to memory on the day. If you can remember the gist of them and then string them into an eloquent essay body paragraph under pressure, then that is enough. These are the bulk of the essay that you wrap around the quotations – you memorised these, remember).

    • If you have to memorise key words, try adapting the Quote Sheet technique to learn these.
    • Also try mind mapping to quickly get an overview of how the concepts link together – you can also depict models and theories in diagrams. Discover what works for you.

Train yourself too, General. (Guess what that means…*)

Preparation of resources and your knowledge, plus preparation of yourself  will make you a formidable force in the essay war.

“Go get ‘em”.

*see previous posts on becoming an essay ninja and writing under pressure if you’re not sure.

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The art of the essay ninja

 

Ninja

Image via Wikipedia

 

Here’s another way to make you a black belt in writing essays in exams: hone your technical analysis skills.

Why is this important?

Technical analysis ability is obviously important for Literature essays where you are given an unfamiliar text in the exam. However, it’s a valuable skill for all essay-writers, including those who write on other subjects besides English Literature.

As every essay ninja knows, if you “give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; if you teach a man to fish…”. Similarly, if you “give a student a pre-prepared essay, you help them scrounge a mark; but give a student technical analysis skills and they can adapt, write on anything, and thrive.” Using memorised and regurgitated essays in exams results in insubstantial pieces of writing that don’t fit well with what the question asks. It’s a risky one-hit-wonder approach – you’ve got to pray that you’ll get the right question on the right text (or theory or topic in other subjects). It also takes ages to memorise the content. Using technical analysis skills saves time – which can then be used for other things!

Please note: knowing which questions are likely for the given texts is a very good thing, but it’s only the beginning. It’s an aide to focus your study on the most critical material. However, your study should aim to develop the skills to write well, not recall second-hand ideas well. Examiners what to know whether you can think, not just what you think.

How do you develop this valuable skill?

  • Have a list of techniques that you have memorised and understand comfortably. Can you explain each technique and think of an example for each one?
  • Give yourself a quick injection of Analysis practice using short texts: tear poems apart (not literally – although it’s tempting at times).
  • Master the art of scribbling bullet-point essay plans in the margins around a poem:
    • these should be quick to do, so that you have plenty of time to write the actual essay
    • they should be detailed enough to guide your whole essay
    • use short hand and key words
    • You also need to be able to read them!
  • Check your progress by asking yourself “Am I able to write a compelling essay based on the notes I’ve made?”

As always, do use this study method under pressure. Is there enough pressure on you to do that yet?

Keep studying hard – it’ll all be over soon. 🙂

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Social Entrepreneurship – An Essay Plan

Massetti, B. (2008) The Social Entrepreneurship Matrix as a "Tipping Point" for Economic Change. Emergence: Complexity & Organization, 10(3) 1-8.

Following on from my last post here is an example plan for an essay on social entrepreneurship:

Introduction in full: The concept of social entrepreneurship is a relatively new one. While some commentators argue that it has been around in practice for at least a century or more, for example the ‘Gung Ho’ response to Japan’s blockading of China’s industry during the late 1930’s, it is a largely misunderstood way of doing business. In recent years, researchers have aimed to cut through the myths and present social entrepreneurship as a viable world changing instrument. One of the clearest ways of presenting the basic forms of social entrepreneurship is Masseti’s Social Entrepreneurship matrix. Using the two forces that impact the social entrepreneur the most: profit and their mission, the matrix creates four quadrants that define the four most common types of social ventures. This essay will use the Social Entrepreneurship matrix to demonstrate that social entrepreneurship is both important and relevant to the New Zealand economy.

First paragraph topic sentence: Quadrant One is the traditional not-for-profit business. They are driven solely by their social mission and do not need to make a profit. Usually set up as charities these organisations rely on government funding or donations to cover their expenses.

Examples:

  • World Vision: a huge part of New Zealand culture with the 40 Hour Famine.
  • Hospice: providing for those who have cancer and their families, also a big part of New Zealand culture with many people donating not just money but also clothes and other useful items. Supported by business organisation such as BNI (Business Network International).
  • Oasis: Brief bit on George Willdridge and the setting up of the Oasis centre for Problem Gamblers.

Second paragraph topic sentence: Quadrant Two is known as the Tipping Point and is made up of businesses that need make a profit as well as carry out their social mission. This is seen as the ultimate vehicle for change in the economy. As Stephen LeFebrve founder of Biovittoria says, the old way of doing business, where you had to screw someone before they screwed you, is changing to one of co-operation and creating win-win situations for all stakeholders. The change that Biovittoria has had on the provinces in China where they operate has been amazing.

Examples:

  • Biovittoria: New Zealand company that has created self-sufficient and sustaining communities of workers in China.
  • Jaime Lerner and Curitiba: similar sort of thing, creating a win-win successful community.

Paragraphs three and four followed the same format, so I won’t post them as you should have the idea by now!

Bullet-pointed conclusion:

  • New Zealand is strong in both Quadrant One and Four.
  • Quadrant One helps those both here and overseas who cannot help themselves which strengthens the overall economy.
  • Quadrant Four helps the economy because the big successful corporations are giving back to the future of New Zealand through school programs and funding and by aiming to preserve New Zealand’s clean green image.
  • Quadrant Two is the ultimate goal and the effects on the economies of Guangxi and Curitiba are incredible and if there was something like that in New Zealand the economy would be greatly improved.

What do you think? My lecturer thought it was pretty good…

Also check out some of the links I’ve put throughout the plan; social entrepreneurship is a really cool thing!


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The proof is in the pudding: preparing for exam essays

 

Christmas pudding decorated with skimmia rathe...

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We all know they’re important. If you don’t have quotations, facts, or other types of evidence in your essay, your body paragraphs won’t prove your points (unless you make up quotations, which we don’t recommend). A Literature essay without quotations is like plum pudding without any plums (and everything around it has turned to custard too). So for exam essays, if you can’t take the text(s) into the exam with you, and you’re not going to get a text in the exam itself, you’ll have to memorise quotations.

Here’s what I did to memorise quotations – I’d create a “Quote Sheet’:

  1. Collect all the potentially useful quotations that you might use in the exam (go through essays you’ve already written on the topic, notes you’ve made in class, and find new ones from the text itself if necessary).
  2. Cull this list down to the bare essential quotations, without losing so much information that you won’t be able to write about key parts of the text. Keep quotations which are important and versatile. Quotations that demonstrate techniques and are launch-pads for thematic discussions are excellent quotations.
  3. Condense the quotations on your short list to acronyms based on key words, or perhaps draw symbols and pictograms to represent them. Yes, you can actually use txt language techniques in this academic setting, because you’re not writing these for the markers.
  4. MEMORISE these acronyms and symbols. Write them out a couple of times. Then test yourself: once you can write the list of memory aids very quickly, with no errors, and can then write out the full “translation” of the memory aid (without cheating), your quotation learning mission is complete.

Wouldn’t it be nice to be able to take a list of quotations into the exam with you? Well this excellent study tactic gives you the next best thing: you can write a memory-jogging list of acronyms and symbols in less than 2 minutes at the start of the exam. Then you can focus on writing your essays with confidence. Better yet, the process of creating this “Quote Sheet” will help you evaluate the key quotations in the text, process them deeply, and understand them better.

Sh – hm! (Study hard – happy memorising!)

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