Posts Tagged planning

Babushka dolls and burgers

babushka dolls

What's in these?

We’ve talked about answering the question – perhaps narrowing the question, using nuanced arguments, and remembering to use the wording of the question as a motif throughout your essay. Answering the question ensures that your essay is eligible to get marks; the other techniques make hard questions easier, conceive higher quality essays, and speed up the process so you have more free time.

It’s important that each paragraph is well structured in its own right, though. This goes beyond knowing when to split or combine thoughts into paragraphs or ordering the paragraphs well. Each paragraph is a mini-argument. So each paragraph has elements which work together to guide your reader through so that they reach your conclusion – or at least appreciate it and give you lots of marks!

Mini-introductions and conclusions

One important ingredient that strengthens a paragraph is an opening and closing topic sentence. This pair of topic sentences holds the paragraph together; making it easier for the reader to ‘pick up’ and digest its contents (the evidence that supports your argument). Topic sentences do this by introducing the main argument of the paragraph, which improving clarity. Then the closing topic sentence summarises, evaluates, and re-emphasises an important “take-out” point at the end of the paragraph. This makes the paragraph more compelling.

Using a pair of topic sentences is sort of like having an introduction and conclusion, on a smaller scale, for each paragraph. Essay writing is often like putting together a babushka doll; each component resembles the one that it’s inside, but it’s smaller and simpler. Repetitive? Perhaps, but that makes it clearer and more compelling. Balance the downside of repetition by using varied expression – but that’s a topic for a future post.

First attempts at topic sentences

Opening topic sentences share a similar function to headings, like the ones in this post. When considering your essay plan, think of the main point of each paragraph as being a heading. Of course, in most academic essays, you won’t use headings (some course lecturers will allow this – check with them before you submit your work). Instead, you can write ‘full sentence’ headings as the first lines of each paragraph – this is a good first attempt at nefarious “topic sentences”, but the two types of topic sentences is a topic (eek) for another time. For an example of topic sentences which shows how well they summarise the main strands of the essay’s argument, see this bird’s-eye-view of an essay.

I encourage you to use topic sentences – while they can be a challenge to write initially, with practice writing them will become second nature. Effective topic sentences can lift the rest of a paragraph. Results are far better than expected, based their proportion of words – try it!


Photo credit: ** Maurice ** via Flickr

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Essays for generals (Part IV) – strategic paragraphs

Strategic paragraphs in action...

Okay, so we’ve covered one of the reasons why paragraphs make your essay suck less: they let the reader absorb information before moving on to the next segment. Paragraphing stops them from dreading the rest of the essay.

Q: How do you decide where to split your writing into paragraphs?

A: You’re asking the wrong question.


Since the point of paragraphs is to make your points clearer, the real question is how can you use paragraphs to make your essay easier to understand? That’s the point (no pun intended) of paragraphs. This approach subtly reshapes the way you assign thoughts to paragraphs. Instead of creating a long rambling stream of consciousness with a few arbitrary paragraph breaks, you start to think strategically.

And you should think about paragraphs strategically. In our army analogy, “Paragraphs are regiments of troops. Each deployed regiment has a specific aim – they provide developed ‘mini-arguments’ and evidence to back up the overall thrust of the essay.” Body paragraphs should form a logical chain of reasoning throughout your essay. Plan the mini-arguments in note form to make sure they support the main argument that you make through the entire essay. Only then should you begin writing if you want to win the battle.

So good paragraphs make your reader hate you less. In addition, by giving your reader a break, they can also understand what you’re saying better. That’s got to be good for your marks.

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Essays for generals (Part III) – Reader's Digest

Break Down write

Breaking things down is important...

So now you understand the “macro-level strategy” to prepare an essay (analysing the question and planning your essay’s overall argument). It’s time to move on to the next layer of detail: organising your answer into paragraphs.

A good analysis of the question + solid knowledge of the topic = opportunity to write unique and persuasive arguments.

However, these elements only give you the opportunity to write a compelling essay; you must express your ideas well. The first step for doing this is to form your paragraphs.

Paragraphs are the largest building blocks of your essay, and they have two important functions:

  1. they separate your overall essay into digestible pieces
  2. they make your points clearer as you build your argument

Digestible pieces

Imagine reading screeds and screeds of text running continuously for almost a whole page with no break. Not fun. No marker (or other normal human being) wants to face that. I suggest you avoid arousing unnecessary resentment.

Since this post is about conveying important ideas succinctly and giving your reader a break, I’m going to stop this post here.

I know I’m not perfect; I often need to be reminded of this too, but “be concise!

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Essays for generals (Part II) – the other half of arguments

Fairy – "Take the Fair Face of Woman"...

This image has nothing to do with this post...

Answering questions well is the first and most critical part of a high-scoring essay. But there’s more to getting the “macro-level strategy” of your essay right than just analysing the question. Without this, it’s like you have really precise intelligence informing you of what to target, and state-of-the-art radar revealing where it is, but you don’t have any ammo to take the target out.

Tip: it’s really useful to have some background understanding on the topic before you write an essay on it. Some of you probably realised this when you implemented the advice in the last post. The need for research is especially high at university, but it’s a good skill to develop at high school because even this mindset alone empowers you to write stronger and richer essays.

Research is your friend

So when you get a question, do some research. You may have good notes from classes/lectures, but most subject teachers expect you to go into more detail than that. There are two ways to do this:

  1. introduce some unique thoughts of your own
  2. integrate thoughts of respected academics.

Researching existing opinions will help you form your own arguments anyway. So do some research – know the basics of the main schools of thought on the topic. This is like knowing the battle field – if you have an understanding of the terrain, you have an advantage. (Sorry to keep using war metaphors, but I’m not accustomed to writing about flowers and fairies and unicorns, so I’ll stick with this analogy for now). Anyway…

Planning – and what follows it

Once you have your basic understanding, you can begin to write a plan for your essay based on argument. In doing this, you may realise that you need more information on specific points. Pros, cons, alternative suggestions, and developments of the basic/original arguments etc. It’s fine if you go back to research at various stages of the writing process. It’s good even, because there’s a feedback loop between what you’re doing, what you can improve, and the resources that raise these questions and make the improvements possible. However, for this process to end well, you need to start early. (We can all improve on that point, I’m sure). So keep researching, and keep adding to your argument brainstorm and planning pages. The writing process is a dynamic process. These are living documents; they evolve as your ideas grow.

To summarise, here’s the process I follow:

  1. Analyse the question
  2. Research to understand the basics on the topic (the ‘battle field terrain’)
  3. Plan the essay’s argument structure
  4. Research to fill the gaps – make the plan complete

Every essay is different and every essay writer is different, so you may use a modified version of the process. It’s okay to use a different process to get to a stunning result. The main thing is that you adapt aptly, edit repeatedly, stay flexible – and allow enough time!

Let me know what you do to prepare for an essay assignment; I’d love to hear from you.

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Social Entrepreneurship – An Essay Plan

Massetti, B. (2008) The Social Entrepreneurship Matrix as a "Tipping Point" for Economic Change. Emergence: Complexity & Organization, 10(3) 1-8.

Following on from my last post here is an example plan for an essay on social entrepreneurship:

Introduction in full: The concept of social entrepreneurship is a relatively new one. While some commentators argue that it has been around in practice for at least a century or more, for example the ‘Gung Ho’ response to Japan’s blockading of China’s industry during the late 1930’s, it is a largely misunderstood way of doing business. In recent years, researchers have aimed to cut through the myths and present social entrepreneurship as a viable world changing instrument. One of the clearest ways of presenting the basic forms of social entrepreneurship is Masseti’s Social Entrepreneurship matrix. Using the two forces that impact the social entrepreneur the most: profit and their mission, the matrix creates four quadrants that define the four most common types of social ventures. This essay will use the Social Entrepreneurship matrix to demonstrate that social entrepreneurship is both important and relevant to the New Zealand economy.

First paragraph topic sentence: Quadrant One is the traditional not-for-profit business. They are driven solely by their social mission and do not need to make a profit. Usually set up as charities these organisations rely on government funding or donations to cover their expenses.


  • World Vision: a huge part of New Zealand culture with the 40 Hour Famine.
  • Hospice: providing for those who have cancer and their families, also a big part of New Zealand culture with many people donating not just money but also clothes and other useful items. Supported by business organisation such as BNI (Business Network International).
  • Oasis: Brief bit on George Willdridge and the setting up of the Oasis centre for Problem Gamblers.

Second paragraph topic sentence: Quadrant Two is known as the Tipping Point and is made up of businesses that need make a profit as well as carry out their social mission. This is seen as the ultimate vehicle for change in the economy. As Stephen LeFebrve founder of Biovittoria says, the old way of doing business, where you had to screw someone before they screwed you, is changing to one of co-operation and creating win-win situations for all stakeholders. The change that Biovittoria has had on the provinces in China where they operate has been amazing.


  • Biovittoria: New Zealand company that has created self-sufficient and sustaining communities of workers in China.
  • Jaime Lerner and Curitiba: similar sort of thing, creating a win-win successful community.

Paragraphs three and four followed the same format, so I won’t post them as you should have the idea by now!

Bullet-pointed conclusion:

  • New Zealand is strong in both Quadrant One and Four.
  • Quadrant One helps those both here and overseas who cannot help themselves which strengthens the overall economy.
  • Quadrant Four helps the economy because the big successful corporations are giving back to the future of New Zealand through school programs and funding and by aiming to preserve New Zealand’s clean green image.
  • Quadrant Two is the ultimate goal and the effects on the economies of Guangxi and Curitiba are incredible and if there was something like that in New Zealand the economy would be greatly improved.

What do you think? My lecturer thought it was pretty good…

Also check out some of the links I’ve put throughout the plan; social entrepreneurship is a really cool thing!

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